Bisphenol A (BPA)-based epoxy resins have wide applications as food-contact materials such as metal can coatings. However, negative consumer perceptions toward BPA have driven the food packaging industry to develop other alternatives. In this study, four different metal cans and their lids manufactured with different BPA-replacement food-contact coatings are subjected to migration testing in order to identify migratory chemical species from the coatings. Migration tests are conducted using food simulants and conditions of use corresponding to the intended applications and regulatory guidance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Extracts are analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high resolution GC-MS. The migratory compounds identified include short chain cyclic polyester migrants from polyester-based coatings and bisphenol-type migrants including tetramethyl bisphenol F (TMBPF), tetramethyl bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (TMBPF DGE), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol C (BPC), and other related monomers or oligomers. The concentration of the migrants is estimated using an internal standard, and validated trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatization GC-MS methods are developed to specifically quantify TMBPF, BPF, BPC, and BPA in the coatings. The results will aid the safety evaluation of new food-contact material coating technology based on TMBPF chemistry and will provide an important reference for the industry in identifying and quantifying non-BPA coating-borne migrants.
This work was supported by the IAFNS Food Packaging Safety Committee.