Chronic overconsumption of sodium has led to its designation as a nutrient of public health concern. While the current adequate intake (AI) of sodium is set at 1.5 g per day, the average daily intake for Americans ages one and up is currently above 3.5 g, leading to an increased risk of health conditions such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Due to the prevalence of daily bread consumption and the moderately high sodium content that accompanies it, bread has become a major contributor to dietary sodium intake. Still people seem to associate foods higher in sodium content, such as processed meats and frozen foods, as the main way to limit sodium consumption, and therefore, overlook the contribution made by regularly consuming bread. This review focuses on recent research detailing methods that are being implemented in attempts to reduce the sodium content of bread products. Included literature examined the perspective of sensory feasibility and on identifying gaps in knowledge surrounding viable strategies for producing reduced-sodium breads. Sodium reduction technologies discussed include methods in the areas of salt removal, physical modification, salt replacement and flavour modification.
This work was supported by IAFNS Sodium Committee.