IAFNS’s Core Values:

Scientific integrity is a core value of IAFNS — centered around transparency.
We bring scientific experts and leaders together to catalyze science for confident decision making by all sectors. IAFNS believes researchers from the public and private sectors can and should work together on science and public health issues. Public-private collaboration - where all interests and conflicts are declared and all funding is acknowledged - can advance public health for public benefit.

Scientific Integrity

Our multi-sector structure is designed to prevent any single interest from dominating. We commit to publishing our results regardless of outcome.

Transparency

We are committed to full disclosure of our funding of research and sharing research methods and data of projects we support with the scientific community.

Collaboration

We believe that engaging industry, government, and academic scientists makes research stronger and minimizes bias.

Public Benefit

Our projects must address issues of broad public health interest and offer benefit to the health of the public.

Integrity in Science - It's Who We Are

Scientific integrity is essential to advancing credible science for the purpose of improving society. IAFNS is a recognized leader in addressing issues of scientific integrity, research public-private partnerships, and conflict of interest through our work with federal agencies and scientific professional societies. We are proud of our extensive programs on scientific integrity, and we integrate scientific integrity into every step of our research programs.

Assembly on Scientific Integrity

The Assembly on Scientific Integrity includes the IAFNS Board of Trustees, IAFNS Scientific Leadership Council, and all IAFNS members from government, industry, and academia.  With representation from all three sectors of our membership, the Assembly is active in ensuring IAFNS achieves and promotes the highest standards of scientific integrity.

View the Assembly’s current and recent projects and efforts.

Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines

The Center for Open Science's Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines provide actionable steps for institutions to practice and promote transparent, reproducible, and rigorous research. IAFNS is a TOP Guidelines signatory. As a signatory, IAFNS supports the principles expressed in the guidelines and supports the implementation of these principles by our funded researchers. All new projects moving forward will work to adhere to the TOP Guidelines.

Our commitment to transparency is confirmed by our establishment a Collection page on the Open Science Framework. The IAFNS Collection aggregates all IAFNS-supported research projects that are registered on the Open Science Framework in one place. It provides greater visibility of the breadth and rigor of research that has been undertaken by the investigators we support, and allows the scientific community to more easily discover our work.

IAFNS's Leadership in Scientific Integrity:

IAFNS Scientific Integrity Timeline 02032021 no logo cropped

IAFNS Scientific Integrity Review

See the latest in our journey to achieve the highest standards of scientific integrity

Publications

Scientific Integrity Principles and Best Practices: Recommendations from a Scientific Integrity Consortium

The Scientific Integrity Consortium developed a set of recommended principles and best practices that can be used broadly across scientific disciplines as a mechanism for consensus on scientific integrity standards and to better equip scientists to operate in a rapidly changing research environment.

Read more about Scientific Integrity Principles and Best Practices: Recommendations from a Scientific Integrity Consortium

Using Risk of Bias Domains to Identify Opportunities for Improvement in Food- and Nutrition-Related Research: An Evaluation of Research Type and Design, Year of Publication, and Source of Funding

Risk of Bias (ROB) study pinpoints ways to improve quality of food & nutrition research.

Read more about Using Risk of Bias Domains to Identify Opportunities for Improvement in Food- and Nutrition-Related Research: An Evaluation of Research Type and Design, Year of Publication, and Source of Funding

Scientific Integrity Resource Guide: Efforts by Federal Agencies, Foundations, Nonprofit Organizations, Professional Societies, and Academia in the United States

This paper provides an overview of key existing efforts on scientific integrity by federal agencies, foundations, nonprofit organizations, professional societies, and academia from 1989 to April 2016.

Read more about Scientific Integrity Resource Guide: Efforts by Federal Agencies, Foundations, Nonprofit Organizations, Professional Societies, and Academia in the United States

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Abstract: Scientific integrity is at the forefront of the scientific research enterprise. This paper provides an overview of key existing efforts on scientific integrity by federal agencies, foundations, nonprofit organizations, professional societies, and academia from 1989 to April 2016. It serves as a resource for the scientific community on scientific integrity work and helps to identify areas in which more action is needed. Overall, there is tremendous activity in this area and there are clear linkages among the efforts of the five sectors. All the same, scientific integrity needs to remain visible in the scientific community and evolve along with new research paradigms. High priority in instilling these values falls upon all stakeholders.

Download the Resource Guide

Updates to the Scientific Integrity Resource Guide

As part of the publication of this work, IAFNS committed to keeping the "Resource Guide" a living document by creating a page on the IAFNS website to post additional and new work on scientific integrity in the 5 different sectors each year.

2019

Federal Agencies Expand

The National Science Foundation has issued a Program Solicitation called "Ethical and Responsible Research," to provide funding in two new areas: 1) Conference proposals designed to bring together researchers and students to foster new ER2 research and the development of new ethical standards for STEM research; 2) Project Incubation proposals designed to support the development of full proposals by two or more organizations.

DARPA's new program "Systematizing Confidence in Open Research and Evidence" (SCORE)-aims to develop and deploy automated tools to assign "confidence scores" to different social and behavioral science research results and claims. The Center for Open Science has been selected to participate in this program to improve the credibility of social and behavioral science research.

Scientific Integrity Act Passes House Committee- Legislation to strengthen scientific integrity policies across federal agencies was approved by the House of Representatives' Committee on Science, Space and Technology on 17 October 2019.

A report published by the U.S. Government Accountability Office highlights how U.S. Federal agencies can improve implementation of scientific integrity policies in three key areas: educating staff, providing oversight, and monitoring and evaluating implementation.

In accordance with 42 C.F.R. Part 93, the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) seeks to support projects to conduct innovative research related to the prevention of research misconduct, protection of whistleblowers, and the furtherance of research integrity in this country and internationally. The goal of the program is to further develop the evidence base for ORI and the research integrity community to create or modify educational programs to encourage the responsible conduct of research (RCR).

In 2019, HHS ORI issued a new funding opportunity to support research to: 1) Identify risk factors that make misconduct more likely; 2) Create an evidence base for proactive interventions; 3) Build on lessons learned through previous research and the experiences of those who have been involved in guiding research misconduct proceedings; 4) Support the development of tools that can be used to more easily identify research misconduct in images and statistical results.

HHS ORI awarded five Research Integrity Conferences (RIC) grants through the Extramural Research Program, funding a total of $244,796. The RIC grants allow up to $50,000 in direct and indirect funding to support conferences designed to provide a forum for discussion and produce tangible outcomes related to at least one of the following themes: 1) responsible conduct of research training; 2) fostering an environment that promotes research integrity; 3) prevention of research misconduct; 4) handling of research misconduct allegations; 5) whistleblowing; or, 6) other topics clearly linked to research integrity and compliance with 42 C.F.R. Part 93.

 

The NSF has developed a new Strategic Plan Building the Future Investing in Discovery and Innovation for Fiscal Years (FY) 2018-2022 with an objective to advance the practice of research. NSF will implement review processes tailored to interdisciplinary research and to enhance efforts to identify and recruit reviewers with experience in cross-cutting research. Working with the research community, NSF promotes the use of best practices to ensure that research is reproducible, including emphasizing the open availability of results and the data that support them. NSF will promote a research culture that is broadly inclusive in its demography and range of intellectual ideas, has access to cutting-edge infrastructure, and is globally engaged, with increased opportunities for exchanging ideas and collaborating on an international scale.

In October 2018, the National Science Board (NSB) issued a Statement on Security and Science. As partners in the scientific enterprise, U.S. universities and colleges must help promote scientific openness and integrity and safeguard information that impacts national security and economic competitiveness. The NSB recommends that all institutions conducting fundamental research supported by the National Science Foundation embrace transparency and rigorously adhere to conflict of interest and conflict of commitment policies. The Board also encourages those institutions to educate their communities about how to protect the integrity of research.

The Office of Advanced Cyberinfrastructure (OAC) hosted a Cyberinfrastructure (CI) webinar series. One of the webinars titled "Cybersecurity to Enable Science: Hindsight & Vision from the NSF Cybersecurity Center of Excellence" addressed "how cybersecurity can play an enabling role in scientific research and how cybersecurity supports scientific integrity, reproducibility, and productivity. The webinar was given by Von Welch, Director and PI for the NSF Cybersecurity Center of Excellence.

New Research Misconduct Case Summaries have been included in the HHS ORI Spring 2018 Newsletter. These cases highlight research misconduct in which administrative actions were imposed.
ORI supported multiple grants at Universities for scientific integrity work which are cited under Academic Updates.

In August 2018 NIH released a Statement on Protecting the Integrity of U.S. Biomedical Research as a response to increasing risks to the security of intellectual property and the integrity of peer review. NIH will work with other government agencies, NIH-funded academic institutions, U.S. professional organizations, and a working group of the Advisory Committee to the (NIH) Director to identify robust methods to: 1) improve accurate reporting of all sources of research support, financial interests, and affiliations; 2) mitigate the risk to intellectual property security while continuing NIH's long tradition of collaborations, including with foreign scientists and institutions; and 3) explore additional steps to protect the integrity of peer review.

In August 2018 the EPA released a memorandum on the Implementation of the EPA's Scientific Integrity Policy. The Office of Inspector General (OIG) for the agency has responsibility for the review. The objective is to examine the following areas:

  1. Extent and type of employee concerns, if any, with scientific integrity at the EPA.
  2. Employee awareness of the EPA's Scientific Integrity Policy, including the process for reporting potential violations.
  3. Reasons potential violations may not be reported.
  4. Adjudication process in general and any concerns (e.g., satisfaction with complaint resolution, timeliness of resolution and other process-related issues).

The anticipated benefits of this project are to identify and address any barriers to achieving the Scientific Integrity Policy's stated purpose, which is "to ensure scientific integrity throughout the EPA and promote scientific and ethical standards, including quality standards; communications with the public; the use of peer review and advisory committees; and professional development."

In February 2018 the OIG released the updated final report of the survey on USDA Scientists Regarding Scientific Integrity. The purpose of the survey was to assess whether USDA scientists perceive they can perform and communicate all aspects of their research assignments or projects without inappropriate influence or political interference. The survey was sent to 2,212 USDA research-grade scientists in 4 USDA agencies: the Agricultural Research Service, the Economic Research Service, the Forest Service, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service.

In August 2017, the NSF released Important Notice No. 140, Training in Responsible Conduct of Research - A Reminder of the NSF Requirement. The NSF recognizes the importance of research integrity and the responsible and ethical conduct of research. As such, NSF's Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) requirement applies to the breadth of research disciplines the Foundation funds and the different educational levels of the students and post-doctoral researchers the agency supports. RCR training should be effective and appropriately tailored to the specific needs and circumstances at each university, and it is the responsibility of each institution to determine both the focus and delivery method for appropriate training.

In 2017, HHS ORI has added several new case summaries of cases in which administrative actions were imposed due to findings of research misconduct to their ongoing list.

The Office of Research Integrity, The George Washington University, and Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research co-sponsored the 2017 Quest for Research Excellence Conference in August 2017. The goal of the Quest for Research Excellence conference series is to fuel knowledge sharing among all the parties involved in promoting the responsible conduct of research and scientific integrity, from scientists to educators, administrators, government officials, journal editors, science publishers and attorneys. The theme of the 2017 conference was "breaking down the silos" and the conference focused on five topics from the perspectives of various stakeholders. These topics included research misconduct, the responsible conduct of research, the legal implications of research misconduct, scientific publications and open science.

HHS ORI co-sponsored a Responsible Conduct of Research Instruction Workshop (RCRIW) with University of California - San Diego in September 2017. The two-day train-the-trainers workshop helped new or inexperienced Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) instructors to develop and implement best practices in RCR instruction. The course presenters were experienced RCR instructors and researchers who presented distinct topics, led active discussions and exercises, and identifed useful resources (case studies, short writing assignments, etc.) for a foundational understanding of RCR and the tools needed for successful RCR instruction. Four topic sessions (data; misconduct; collaboration; and publication and authorship) demonstrated effective teaching methods and illustrated positive and negative practices in the conduct of research.

USDA has also created a website of Scientific Integrity Resources that includes links to the White House Memoranda and Executive Orders and the many Federal Department and Agency Scientific Integrity Policies, as well as links to the General Services Administration Guidance on Scientific Integrity and the Whistleblower Protection Enhancement Act of 2012.

Foundations Expand

 

 

The John Templeton Foundation, Templeton Religion Trust, and Templeton World Charity Foundation has awarded three, multi-year grants to the Center for Open Science (COS). These grants will support the development and improvement of the Open Science Framework (OSF), COS's free and open cloud-based project collaboration system for managing, registering, and archiving the process and outputs of research. Learn more.

LJAF also supports the AllTrials initiative and its campaign to require that all clinical trials-past and present-be registered with full disclosure of study methods and results. The foundation is funding the creation of Open Trials, an open, online database that will aggregate information from a wide variety of sources to provide a comprehensive picture of the data and documents associated with all trials of medicines and other treatments from around the world.

In addition, an LJAF grant to the American Association for the Advancement of Science is supporting a partnership between Science and other major journals and government funders. The collaboration is focused on developing new guidelines for transparency that outline the elements editors and reviewers should consider when deciding whether to publish a study.

Nonprofit Organizations Expand

A Scientific Integrity Consortium, convened by IAFNS and hosted by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, Medicine's Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable (GUIRR), developed a set of recommended principles and best practices that can be used broadly across scientific disciplines as a mechanism for consensus on scientific integrity standards and to better equip scientists to operate in a rapidly changing research environment. The Scientific Integrity Consortium comprises 4 U.S. government agencies, 3 Canadian government agencies, 11 professional societies, 6 universities and 3 non-profit organizations. IAFNS is a member of the Consortium.

The Committee on Reproducibility and Replicability in Science, chaired by Dr. Harvey Fineberg, released its final report, Reproducibility and Replicability in Science on May 7, 2019. The report defines reproducibility and replicability and examines the factors that may lead to non-reproducibility and non-replicability in research. It provides recommendations to researchers, academic institutions, journals, and funders on steps they can take to improve reproducibility and replicability in science. Access the report. View archived webcast of the report release webinar.

 

In March 2018 NAS published the article "Transparency in authors' contributions and responsibilities to promote integrity in scientific publication" in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). The article outlines proposed changes to journal authorship policies and procedures to provide insight into which author is responsible for which contributions. NAS recommends having journals adopt common and transparent standards for authorship, outline responsibilities for corresponding authors, adopt the Contributor Roles Taxonomy (CRediT) (docs.casrai.org/CRediT) methodology for attributing contributions, include this information in article metadata, and require authors to use the ORCID persistent digital identifier (https://orcid.org). Universities and research institutions should articulate expectations about author roles and responsibilities to provide a point of common understanding for discussion of authorship across research teams. NAS proposes funding agencies adopt the ORCID identifier and accept the CRediT taxonomy to further authorship transparency.

In November 2018 NAS held a session on "Transparency and Accountability and the National Science Foundation" organized by the Committee on Science, Engineering, Medicine, and Public Policy.

In 2017, COS has helped to launch multiple preprint services in different areas of science, including MarXiv, for the ocean conservation and marine climate sciences, EarthArXiv, provides free, open access, open source archives for the earth sciences, INA-Rxiv, the preprint server of Indonesia; LISSA, an open scholarly platform for library and information science;  MindRxiv, a service for research on mind and contemplative practices; NutriXiv, a preprint service for the nutritional sciences; paleorXiv, a digital archive for Paleontology; and SportRxiv, an open archive for sport and exercise-related research.

May 2017 Update:

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine published a report, Fostering Integrity in Research, in April 2017. The report was published by the Committee on Responsible Science and the Committee on Science, Engineering, Medicine, and Public Policy. It examines challenges to scientific integrity facing the research enterprise and recommends steps that individual scientists, research sponsors, research institutions, journal publishers, and professional societies should take to meet these challenges and better protect integrity in research.

The Sackler Colloquium on Reproducibility of Research: Issues and Proposed Remedies was held in March 2017. The goal of this colloquium was to bring together scientists and researchers from multiple disciplines to lay out the scope of the problem of reproducibility in a more tactical way that permits each problematic aspect to be measured, assessed for baseline levels, targeted with proposed interventions to reduce the occurrence, and monitored for improvement.

As stated on its website, the Union of Concerned Scientists, "puts rigorous, independent science to work to solve our planet's most pressing problems. Joining with citizens across the country, we combine technical analysis and effective advocacy to create innovative, practical solutions for a healthy, safe, and sustainable future." (http://www.ucsusa.org/about-us#.WPDkYtLys2w)

In 2004, UCS issued a report, Scientific Integrity in Federal Policy Making, and a statement signed by 62 leading U.S. scientists (more than 15,000 would eventually add their names) calling for an end to political interference in science. Over the following years, the UCS Scientific Integrity Program documented the problem extensively with in-depth reports, case studies, and surveys of federal scientists, including a compilation of Abuse of Science: Case Studies and Surveys of Scientists at Federal Agencies.

Most recently, UCS has released a report on, Preserving Scientific Integrity in Federal Policymaking, in 2017.

Professional Societies Expand

On July 2018 COPE held its third educational webinar for members titled "Creating and implementing data research policies" on the practicalities and challenges of choosing data sharing policies for journals and ensuring authors and reviewers adhere to the policies.

In the article "Research integrity and how to buy a Persian carpet: TOP Guidelines, part 2" COPE is collecting comments on the draft article from the Center for Open Science's Transparency and Openness (TOP) Guidelines Workshop that the Committee attended in September 2017. The extended workshop was designed to make the original TOP guidelines easy for researchers to understand and adopt and implement so research readers can build-upon a piece of work.

CSE updated their White Paper on Promoting Integrity in Scientific Journal Publications in May 2018 and will continue to update it on a rolling basis as needed. This paper serves as a basis for developing and improving effective practices to promote integrity in scientific publishing. Through this White Paper and other activities, the Editorial Policy Committee aims to open dialog about ethical publishing practices, inform those involved in the editorial process, and foster informed decision making by editors.

In collaboration with the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the 2018 FASEB Science Research Conference (SRC) series is piloting a Transparency and Rigor Initiative to enhance the reproducibility of research findings in research. This pilot will use badges to test whether key information regarding experimental methods can be conveyed effectively using transparency and rigor at the 2018 SRC. This initiative aligns with the broader efforts of FASEB to promote rigor and reproducibility in biological and biomedical research.

ACS updated their website to share their policy priorities to support scientific integrity. ACS supports the efforts to:

  • Promote a strong, non-governmental, scientific publishing enterprise that assures access to information and exchange of scientific ideas and information among all parties with legitimate uses while appropriately protecting copyright and security-related information.
  • Assure the quality of science and technological advancement through open, rigorous and inclusive peer review.
  • Promote institutions and guidelines to assure that governments make appropriate and open use of scientific and technological information in making policy decisions.
  • Assure the most open interactions possible among scientists, engineers, and students from across the globe.

ACS also lists policy priorities in scientific integrity and other areas.

 

ACS released its 2017 advocacy agenda in January. The Society's highest priorities fall into three broad categories, one of which is to ensure scientific integrity and the role of science in the public policy arena.

The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) has compiled resources for authors on the ASM ethics portal; including a particularly useful module on avoiding image manipulation. The ASM website includes a Compendium of Resources highlighting ASM policies/procedures, ASM publications on ethics, and resources on both publishing and research ethics.

ASA has a Code of Ethics that sets forth the principles and ethical standards that underlie sociologists' professional responsibilities and conduct. These principles and standards should be used as guidelines when examining everyday professional activities. ASA's Code of Ethics consists of an Introduction, a Preamble, five General Principles, and specific Ethical Standards. This Code is also accompanied by the Rules and Procedures of the ASA Committee on Professional Ethics which describe the procedures for filing, investigating, and resolving complaints of unethical conduct. ASA is proposing revisions to the Code of Ethics in 2018.

Since 2013, COPE has released a monthly newsletter, the COPE Digest: Publication Ethics in Practice.

COPE has developed flowcharts that are designed to help editors follow COPE's Core Practices and implement its advice when faced with cases of suspected misconduct. The flowcharts have been translated into a number of different languages.

The CSE website includes many documents describing CSE policies that are to be used as resources by CSE members, including:

Approved by the CSE Board of Directors

Retreat and Task Force Papers

Ethics Survey

Other Supported Statements

CSE also has compilation of retraction resources  that includes primary guidance documents and other materials from COPE, CSE, ICMJE, and others, that provide information related to handling retractions of scientific publications. The materials provided also address publication corrections, errata, partial retractions, and editorial expressions of concern, and include information on how HHS ORI handles suspected scientific misconduct in the research funded by agencies under its governance.

Academia Expand

The NYU-University of Ghana Research Integrity Training Program, part of NYU Langone's Division of Medical Ethics, is a collaborative endeavor between the two universities. This program is designed to develop expertise related to research ethics, research integrity, and research governance in Ghana. It consists of the development and implementation of a fellowship program in research integrity, which will be offered to 24 researchers in cohorts of 8 over the course of 3 years, 6 of whom will be selected to complete a master's degree in bioethics at NYU. It is funded by an International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development Award (1-R25-TW-010886-01) from the Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health.

In the wake of major research misconduct, Duke University School of Medicine (DUSoM) implemented a new Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) program and expanded its RCR education activities to include all DUSoM faculty and staff engaged in research. The program included formal deliberation of the Translational Omics misconduct case, which occurred at Duke. Over 5,000 DUSoM faculty and staff participated in the first phase of this new program, with a 100% completion rate.

Northwestern's Chicago campus was the site of a two-day national conference on research integrity this spring. Institutional leaders from across the nation converged to discuss strategies, resources, and tools for promoting research integrity. The May 22-23 event welcomed senior institutional leaders from throughout the country to openly discuss strategies, resources, and tools for promoting research integrity for scientists and scholars. Co-hosted by Northwestern, the Department of Health and Human Service's Office of Research Integrity, and the Council of Graduate Schools, the conference featured a keynote address by Michael Lauer, deputy director for extramural research at the National Institutes of Health.

Leading scholars and publishers from ten countries have agreed on a definition of predatory publishing that can protect scholarship. The consensus definition reached was: "Predatory journals and publishers are entities that prioritize self-interest at the expense of scholarship and are characterized by false or misleading information, deviation from best editorial and publication practices, a lack of transparency, and/or the use of aggressive and indiscriminate solicitation practices."

Leaders in academia with expertise in the professional and ethical conduct of research have formalized a proposal to assemble a research advisory board. The proposal appears in the journal Nature. An independent research integrity advisory board could standardize protocols and practices, and function as a clearinghouse of information and a source of guidance for these institutions. According to the proposal, a U.S. advisory board for research integrity would:

  • Foster consistency and exchange of information across funders, scientists and administrators.
  • Provide resources to assess research environments and boost integrity.
  • Benchmark common practices across institutions and establish best practices.
  • Develop guidelines and standards for misconduct investigations and formal disputes.
  • Establish lists of vetted experts for external investigations.

 

George Mason University held a workshop in the summer of 2018 titled "Promoting Research Integrity in Multidisciplinary and Multi-team Based Science Initiatives". The workshop focused on "National Institutes of Health (NIH) principal investigators and will be aimed at clarifying the nature of lapses in the operation of complex multi-team systems when it comes to research integrity, using the insights of participants from both their direct and indirect multi-teams experience. Funded by HHS ORI grant ORIIR170033.

In September 2018, Ohio State University's Office of Research sponsored a one-day summit titled "Seeking Solutions in Research Integrity: A View from All Perspectives." The conference brought together researchers, institutions, publishers, funders, scientific societies, the press, and federal agencies to discuss concerns in research integrity and current efforts to discuss those concerns, laying the foundation to detail next steps in fostering changes to enhance integrity in research.

In April 2018, Purdue University and Indiana University hosted "Plagiarism: A Conference on the Identification, Processing, Prevention and Cultural Context of Plagiarism," funded by HHS ORI grant ORIIR170031-01-00. The conference brought together Research Integrity Officers (RIO), Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) instructors, faculty, and federal partners to explore the breadth of plagiarism issues and their subtleties in the modern, multicultural research environment."

In March 2018 CASBS launched the "Impact Evaluation Design Lab" to build an evidence-informed decision framework to help policy makers assess large-scale public policy programs and engage researchers in advancing social scientific methodology through real-world evaluation design challenges. King County, WA and Stockton, CA are the first two partners in the design lab.

BITSS is providing funds for Texas A&M University to develop a graduate health online course in research integrity, transparency, and reproducibility to respond to the growing recognition within the scientific community that flexibility in study design, data analysis, and the reporting of research findings is increasingly leading to the publication of misleading results that capitalize on chance and cannot be replicated. It has been suggested that the use of such practices, if not made apparent in a manuscript describing the results of a study, is a form of research misconduct. This course will examine various threats to the integrity of research, the professional and organizational factors that produce these threats, and the solutions that have been suggested to improve research quality (such as registered reports, open data, and team of rivals). Upon completion of the course, students should have the ability to differentiate research that is conducted with integrity and capable of producing valid and reproducible findings from research that is conducted without integrity and produces chance results that are trivial and non-reproducible. Students should also have the ability to incorporate practices into their own research that will increase its transparency and ensure it is conducted with integrity.

Through the BITSS Catalyst Program, Soazic Elise Wang Sonne has trained more than 150 African researchers via workshops in South Africa, Cameroon, the UK, the US, and the Netherlands on research transparency and reproducibility. At these trainings, participants reflect on how research transparency norms and practices can be better entrenched in African academic higher institutions. Building the capacity of African researchers to conduct reproducible and transparent research will help ensure findings used by policy makers to make key decisions are based on credible evidence. It will also strengthen trust and partnerships between policy makers and the academic community. Further information is found here.

In March 2018, University of Minnesota held a conference titled "Research Integrity and Trustworthy Science: Challenges & Solutions." The conference was part of Research Ethics Week, during which the University focused on professional development and best practices to ensure safety and integrity in research. The conference brought together leading thinkers from multiple disciplines - biomedicine, the social sciences, law, ethics, and others - to analyze the challenges for researchers, universities, journals, and the community and map a way forward.

The Spencer S. Eccles Health Sciences Library at the University of Utah provides several resources including classes and workshops on the reproducibility of research. In June 2018 the University offered a five-day course that "explored issues of research reproducibility in-depth in a seminar-type setting, followed by hands-on sessions to learn actionable, practical solutions to make research work more reproducible." On the last day a conference on Building Research Integrity Through Reproducibility funded in part by HHS ORI grant ORIIR170034 was held.

In September 2018, Vanderbilt Linkages held the third Growing Research Integrity Together (GRIT) Conference. The 2-day online workshop focused on the role of researcher administrators in promoting research integrity. The event featured U.S. experts from various fields of research integrity and research administration. The GRIT series was developed in part under a grant from HHS ORI ORIIR160029.

BITSS has created the Catalyst Program. Catalysts are graduate students, academic faculty, and other researchers in the social sciences who are committed to changing norms by educating the current and next generation of economists, psychologists, political scientists, and other social scientists on transparency tools and practices. The Catalyst program formalizes a network of professionals to advance the teaching, practice, funding, and publishing of transparent social science research. The overarching goal of this program is to connect and empower individuals to make changes in their own classrooms, in their universities, and across their network, thereby achieving far-reaching change. BITSS is supporting 100 academics and research practitioners working in 75 institutions in 28 countries (across five continents) as leaders in the open science movement. Catalysts:

  • Educate: Catalysts deliver at least one training per academic year on research transparency. Catalysts can identify the appropriate delivery mechanisms for integrating training on research transparency, including integrating into existing curricula, seminars, workshops, or boot camps.
  • Develop, share, and strengthen educational materials: Catalysts share existing resources and new materials that complement and extend the BITSS library, as well as provide feedback on the existing BITSS educational materials library. All materials will be shared through OSF, GitHub, or other sharing mechanisms for the benefit of other Catalysts and the broader community.
  • Advocate: Catalysts lead advocacy efforts that will affect policy change at the department or academic senate levels (e.g. among university governing bodies). This may include writing blogs, OpEd pieces, meeting with administrators and other decision makers to discuss and develop additions and or revisions to curriculum.
  • Catalyst Training Grants: BITSS offers grants to Catalysts to develop and deliver trainings in the form of workshops, conferences, short-courses, or university-level curriculum development.

BITSS funds Social Science Meta-Analysis and Research Transparency (SSMART) Grants. SSMART aims to improve the quality of research in economics, political science, psychology, and related disciplines by funding research related to transparency and reproducibility issues. With catalytic funding from the LJAF, SSMART is also partially funded by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. There are three core categories of projects funded through SSMART:

  • Develop new methodology: These projects develop innovative methods to improve the transparency and credibility of research findings.
  • Produce new meta-analysis: These projects develop new tools and approaches for meta-analysis.
  • Study research culture and the adoption of new methods: These projects study researcher norms and strategies to promote the practice of open science.

BITSS has awarded their 2017 Leamer-Rosenthal Prizes for Open Social Science. There are two types o of awards: Leaders in Education and Emerging Researchers.

CCRE, located at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, offers a Professionalism & Integrity (P.I.) in Research Program called "Helping Researchers Become More Effective Professionals." Using a career-coaching model, the P.I. Program offers personalized assessments, a group workshop, and post-workshop coaching calls to help researchers operate professionally in today's complex environments. A variety of individuals have profited from the P.I. Program, including researchers who: (1) Find it challenging to balance scientific and compliance demands in today's complex regulatory environments, (2) Have been investigated for noncompliance or misconduct and wish to move forward constructively, (3) Have staff who have been investigated for noncompliance or misconduct, and want to learn how to provide strong professional leadership and oversight. http://integrityprogram.org/ The P.I. Program offers webinars and courses.

The HHS ORI (see HHS ORI under Federal Agencies) awarded a grant to the P.I. Program to expand its recruitment and assessment efforts. New assessments will examine the work habits of participants. The project builds on work from the recent NIH K01 Award received by Dr. Alison Antes, the P.I. Program's most recent faculty member, which includes studying the work habits of research exemplars. Drs. Antes and DuBois recently interviewed 52 researchers who conduct high impact research and enjoy a reputation for great leadership and integrity in research. Data from these projects will inform recommendations on best practices for lab leadership and management.

The CCRE Dr. Daniel Bisno Ethics in Medicine Fund was established in 2001 to provide experiences designed to raise awareness of ethical issues in medical practice and to improve ethical decision making. The fund is used to support diverse activities, including lectures, curriculum development, small group meetings, publications, and other activities sponsored by the CCRE.

Launched in April 2014 with a founding grant from the Laura and John Arnold Foundation, METRICS is a research to action center focused on transforming research practices to improve the quality of scientific studies in biomedicine and beyond. METRICS fosters multi-disciplinary research collaborations to help produce solutions that increase the effectiveness and value of scientific investigation. By serving as a lens that both focuses and helps magnify the impact of scholars, policymakers and others working on meta-research issues, METRICS hopes to enhance the public discourse and advance the development of policies and practices that maximize the use of best research practices. METRICS has three main goals:

  1. Build the meta-research field and catalyze solutions-focused research to develop best scientific practices
  2. Provide leaders with the skills and knowledge needed to support the development and implementation of high-quality research
  3. Transform research practices to strengthen the evidence base for informed decision-making

METRICS promotes research and drives innovation in a broad domain of subjects, which are divided into five focal areas corresponding to critical phases of the research cycle:

  1. Methods: The phase of designing and conducting research
    1. Rigorous research methods are at the heart of good science. These methods include everything from question formation to study design, conduct, statistical analysis and interpretation. Meta-researchers use both theoretical and empirical approaches to identify flaws and biases in the research enterprise, then develop and test methods to minimize them and define best practices.
  2. Reporting: The phase of communicating research
    1. For research to be useful it needs to be communicated properly to scientists and others who use the results. This reporting is done through research papers, written by scientists, or by various forms of media that convey scientific results to broader audiences. Meta-researchers are developing standards for reporting results and experimenting with new means to improve communication to scientists, policy makers, patients, and the general public.
  3. Evaluation: The phase of evaluating research
    1. Scientific quality is constantly evaluated in journal publications, funding decisions, academic promotions, industry investment, medical practice guidelines, standard setting, and policy decisions. Peer review has long served as the cornerstone of such evaluations, but it is widely acknowledged to be imperfect and inefficient. Meta-researchers across multiple disciplines are assessing its effectiveness and experimenting with new approaches to improve the assessment of scientific quality.
  4. Reproducibility: The phase of verifying research
    1. Replicating research results is central to scientific credibility. Meta-research has repeatedly shown that accurate reporting and sound peer-review do not by themselves guarantee the reproducibility of a scientific claim and that active replications of previous research are too rarely done. Meta-researchers are developing new ways to assess the reproducibility of findings, make experimental data available, and promote policies that can make verifying research more routine and more effective.
  5. Incentives: The phase of rewarding research
    1. Research is a rewarding activity in itself, but funding, recognition, and career advancement are critical to a successful scientific career. If the scientific reward system is not aligned with the adoption of best scientific practices, such as study replication and publishing negative results, such practices will happen rarely. Changing the criteria and processes by which rewards are distributed in science can help ensure that the most reliable research is encouraged.

METRICS' publications database provides the latest in meta-research across METRICS five focal areas. Publications can be filtered by author, publication year, region, and METRICS faculty and affiliates.

Beginning in 2017, METRICS will offer a limited number of research fellowships for doctoral students and postdoctoral scholars to help advance the Center's research agenda.

NCPRE is located within the Coordinated Science Lab at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. NCPRE creates and shares resources to support the development of better ethics and leadership practices. The Center focuses on leadership in a variety of institutional settings, from academia to business.  NCPRE is part of the Coordinated Science Laboratory in the College of Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

The NCPRE project began with a $1.5 million grant from the National Science Foundation.  Current work includes studying and promoting improved research practice in university and private settings. One of NCPRE's flagship initiatives is the SOURCE project, which provides universities with tools to assess their research ethics climates and benchmark themselves against institutional peers. Another important current activity is a multi-year leadership development institute, in collaboration with Nanyang Technological University in Singapore.

In all its activities, NCPRE is committed to forming, developing, and supporting communities of responsible professional practice. NCPRE:

  • Recognizes that no one seeks disaster; small choices are important in personal and ethical pathways.
  • Creates tools, systems, and resources to help universities and others educate about ethics, the responsible conduct of research, and leadership.
  • Educates about ethics as the smart choice, not just the right choice.
  • Helps institutions assess the integrity of their environments.
  • Develops leaders using evidence-based, practical, applied strategies.
  • When things go wrong, NCPRE provides strategies for salvage and for returning to business as usual.
  • Helps emerging professionals, from high school on, understand the importance of ethical and professional choices, and to lead effectively.

NCPRE offers online instruction in professional development and ethical decision-making. The 4-course series, "Professional IQ: Preventing and Solving Problems at Work," is targeted towards people seeking or starting new jobs, who are facing dilemmas in their current job, who have just been promoted or who want to be more marketable for a promotion, or who possesses strong technical skills and want to develop leadership skills. The course series is available now as a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) through Coursera.

PSI is currently working on projects in the following areas:

Please help keep this document current by pointing out areas that need to be expanded or updated or additional organizations that should be included. Please send comments or suggestions to integrity@iafns.org with the subject line "Scientific Integrity."

Citation: Kretser, A., Murphy, D., & Dwyer, J. (2017). Scientific integrity resource guide: Efforts by federal agencies, foundations, nonprofit organizations, professional societies, and academia in the United States. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 57(1), 163-180. http://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2016.1221794

This publication is part of IAFNS's work on Scientific Integrity.

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                )

            [relation] => AND
            [meta_table] => wp_postmeta
            [meta_id_column] => post_id
            [primary_table] => wp_posts
            [primary_id_column] => ID
            [table_aliases:protected] => Array
                (
                    [0] => wp_postmeta
                    [1] => mt1
                    [2] => mt2
                    [3] => mt3
                    [4] => mt4
                )

            [clauses:protected] => Array
                (
                    [wp_postmeta] => Array
                        (
                            [key] => _ilsi_date
                            [compare] => =
                            [compare_key] => =
                            [alias] => wp_postmeta
                            [cast] => CHAR
                        )

                    [mt1] => Array
                        (
                            [key] => _ilsi_date
                            [value] => 2021-09-17
                            [compare] => <=
                            [compare_key] => =
                            [alias] => mt1
                            [cast] => CHAR
                        )

                    [mt2] => Array
                        (
                            [key] => _ilsi_date
                            [value] => 2021-09-17
                            [compare] => <=
                            [compare_key] => =
                            [alias] => mt2
                            [cast] => CHAR
                        )

                    [mt3] => Array
                        (
                            [key] => _ilsi_date
                            [value] => Array
                                (
                                    [0] => 2011-01-01
                                    [1] => 2011-12-31
                                )

                            [compare] => BETWEEN
                            [compare_key] => =
                            [alias] => mt3
                            [cast] => CHAR
                        )

                    [mt4] => Array
                        (
                            [key] => _ilsi_date
                            [value] => 2011-12-31
                            [compare] => <
                            [compare_key] => =
                            [alias] => mt4
                            [cast] => CHAR
                        )

                )

            [has_or_relation:protected] => 
        )

    [date_query] => 
    [request] => SELECT SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS  wp_posts.ID FROM wp_posts  LEFT JOIN wp_term_relationships ON (wp_posts.ID = wp_term_relationships.object_id) INNER JOIN wp_postmeta ON ( wp_posts.ID = wp_postmeta.post_id )  INNER JOIN wp_postmeta AS mt1 ON ( wp_posts.ID = mt1.post_id )  INNER JOIN wp_postmeta AS mt2 ON ( wp_posts.ID = mt2.post_id )  INNER JOIN wp_postmeta AS mt3 ON ( wp_posts.ID = mt3.post_id )  INNER JOIN wp_postmeta AS mt4 ON ( wp_posts.ID = mt4.post_id ) WHERE 1=1  AND ( 
  wp_term_relationships.term_taxonomy_id IN (70)
) AND ( 
  wp_postmeta.meta_key = '_ilsi_date' 
  AND 
  ( 
    ( mt1.meta_key = '_ilsi_date' AND mt1.meta_value <= '2021-09-17' ) 
    AND 
    ( mt2.meta_key = '_ilsi_date' AND mt2.meta_value <= '2021-09-17' ) 
    AND 
    ( mt3.meta_key = '_ilsi_date' AND mt3.meta_value BETWEEN '2011-01-01' AND '2011-12-31' ) 
    AND 
    ( mt4.meta_key = '_ilsi_date' AND mt4.meta_value < '2011-12-31' )
  )
) AND wp_posts.post_type = 'event' AND (wp_posts.post_status = 'publish' OR wp_posts.post_status = 'acf-disabled') GROUP BY wp_posts.ID ORDER BY wp_postmeta.meta_value DESC LIMIT 0, 5
    [posts] => Array
        (
        )

    [post_count] => 0
    [current_post] => -1
    [in_the_loop] => 
    [comment_count] => 0
    [current_comment] => -1
    [found_posts] => 0
    [max_num_pages] => 0
    [max_num_comment_pages] => 0
    [is_single] => 
    [is_preview] => 
    [is_page] => 
    [is_archive] => 1
    [is_date] => 
    [is_year] => 
    [is_month] => 
    [is_day] => 
    [is_time] => 
    [is_author] => 
    [is_category] => 
    [is_tag] => 1
    [is_tax] => 
    [is_search] => 
    [is_feed] => 
    [is_comment_feed] => 
    [is_trackback] => 
    [is_home] => 
    [is_privacy_policy] => 
    [is_404] => 
    [is_embed] => 
    [is_paged] => 
    [is_admin] => 
    [is_attachment] => 
    [is_singular] => 
    [is_robots] => 
    [is_favicon] => 
    [is_posts_page] => 
    [is_post_type_archive] => 
    [query_vars_hash:WP_Query:private] => 3c8c1acd9d91f536133b1b6288b2b924
    [query_vars_changed:WP_Query:private] => 
    [thumbnails_cached] => 
    [stopwords:WP_Query:private] => 
    [compat_fields:WP_Query:private] => Array
        (
            [0] => query_vars_hash
            [1] => query_vars_changed
        )

    [compat_methods:WP_Query:private] => Array
        (
            [0] => init_query_flags
            [1] => parse_tax_query
        )

)